Peter Paul Rubens' paint steps and detailed skill
Rubens seldom sketch directly on the drawing board. He always draws the draft first, and solves various problems in composition and specific painting. When Rubens starts drawing on the drawing board, his whole energy will be completely focused on the drawing board, and he will not be distracted by the model.
Rubens first used a light color as thin as watercolor to sketch out the portrait or figure quickly. Then warm brown is used to show the shadow area of the picture and outline the light area. Then apply a translucent halftone, commonly used for skin tones, to the light area. Add color to red cheeks and lips. The light and shade areas are almost the same brightness, except that one is transparent and the other is translucent. The two light and dark surfaces can be fused until the figure is perfect. The intersection of light and dark is filled with various kinds of gray called out by white and black, and the shadow of the bright face of the figure is also filled with gray instead of dark brown. Rubens used a lot of gray to make the characters have a backward feeling in his paintings. Because strong color makes the characters have a sense of progress, while gray gives a sense of retreat. If Rubens has a secret in color combination, then his cold gray can be worthy of it. When you apply cool gray to the edges of a pink complexion, the gray will appear blue or even green.
After the figure is shaped by gray, red or gray can be added to the reflective area of transparent shadow immediately. So far, portraits and characters have only been kept in light tones. The last two steps are to add a layer of light to the screen first, and then highlight the highlights in the shadow. In the last two steps, the brightness of the light area is thick and opaque. The brightest part of the skin color is not a single white, but a mixed color with the skin tone. Dark brown, crimson or black are used to highlight the shadow, in addition, soft or accentuate the intensity color in the required area.
Every part of Rubens' painting has a left unfinished picture, which is complete only at the end, so it takes a lot of courage and confidence for others to draw Rubens' paintings. Rubens's oil painting technique can complete a three-dimensional head in just a few hours.
Pigments and brushes used by Rubens
The color order in the color palette is as follows: lead white, Napu yellow, light turquoise, French light vermilion, scarlet, ripe ochre, ripe brown, ivory black and ultramarine.
The brushes are 4, 5 and 8 round bristle brushes, 4 round Sable Brushes, and large flat bristle mixed color brushes.
In addition to using blue instead of ultramarine, other colors are the same as portrait painting.
The brushes are 6 and 8 round bristle brushes, 4 round Sable Brushes, large flat bristle mixed color brushes, 12.7cm flat cow hair mixed color brushes.
1. Use black chalk or charcoal, red chalk and white Gong Dai pen to draw figures on light yellow paper. Red is used for warm colors, white is used for highlights and light areas, and the light yellow of the paper is used to blend and reflect light in the middle. The line direction is according to the natural shape of the character.
2. Mix a little color oil into ripe Brown for color matching. Then dip the bristle brush into the color and transfer the prepared sketch to the drawing board. In this step, we should pay more attention to the scale structure, while the details do not need to be considered. When modifying, we only need to erase some strokes with a cloth and then redraw.
3. Use the brush used in step 2, and apply a small amount of mature ochre diluted by toner oil to the hair of the character. It is not suitable to use too much toner oil. The specific amount of toner oil can only be grasped through continuous practice. But if the screen becomes greasy after using toner oil, it must be too much toner oil. In this step, the background part is painted with ivory black, white and ultramarine mixed colors. When oil painting
the background, the color is directly toned on the palette, and the color of the picture is thin.
4. Apply dark brown on the hair, but keep the shade transparent so as to show the light of the drawing board.
5. Along the curve of the hair, use a clean sable brush to apply the yellow color to the brightest part of the hair. Blend the four sides of the brightest part of the hair into the basic color of the hair, but keep the thick color in the middle of the bright area. Be careful not to paint the opaque napkin yellow in the transparent shadow of the previous step.
6. Apply a thin gray color of ivory black and white to the shadow of face, neck and chest to make it transparent. Then apply gray to all the parts where the character turns and leans back, such as the outer contour of the cheek and the chest. Each bristle brush is used for each different color.
7. Apply the middle tone of skin color of Tuhuang, white and French vermilion to the light area of face and chest. This color should be overlapped on the edge of the skin color, so that there is no blank space on the drawing board. Then add vermilion to the eyelids, cheeks, nose and mouth.
8. In the unfinished painting, use ripe brown to highlight the head and facial features.
9. First melt the color in one direction with a large dry bristle brush, and then melt the color in the opposite direction. This blending just softens the color, not changes the existing outline. Continue to improve the picture, modify all basic brightness, and use different brushes to modify skin color, gray and brown. Then use red to show the reflection under the nose and chin.
10. Apply a lighter tone of white and turquoise to the highlights of the skin. Due to its own characteristics of lead white, this kind of color mixing is thick and opaque, which can highlight the highlight area on the skin color. Be careful not to paint the skin color too bright, because there is no pure white skin color in real life.
11. Use different brushes with different colors to further improve the shape of the head. When modifying each stroke, brush back and forth from light to dark.
12. Highlight the highlight area of skin color again, soft edge color. Depict the details and emphasize the deep shadow of nostrils and lip lines. The highlights are not pure white but fleshy. At the same time, start drawing the hands of the characters.
13. Follow the steps of drawing face to finish the hand. Apply a transparent mixture of brown and ivory black to your hands.
14. Use white, ivory black, ultramarine and a small amount of color to color the background of oil painting reproductions
. If the color is too light or too deep, you can directly add the corresponding color to the drawing board, and use the brush to mix until the color is appropriate. The edges of the hair and the coat are colored with blue overlap, so there is no obvious dividing line between them. If the line between hair and coat is unclear due to too much blue overlap, you can use black to outline again. Add color around the outline to make the new line not too hard, and leave no space between the character and the background. The soft edge is created by finger painting, which makes the character seem to be surrounded by the surrounding air in a real space.
15. Apply the gray out of black and white to the highlight area of the blouse, and highlight the black shadow of the pleats of the blouse with black.
16. The shirt of the character is made of pure white, pressing the brush hard to draw a thin layer of color. Use a mixture of turquoise and brown to apply to pants in a light tone. Apply a mixture of bright red and ivory black to the waistband.
17. Apply gray to the shadow of the shirt, add three-dimensional feeling, and then apply brown and ivory black to the shadow of the square towel and pants.
18. Apply strong pure white to the high light area of the shirt and soft edge color, and apply a mixture of tawny, white and brown to the high light area of the pants. Then apply the mixed colors of vermilion, Xijiang and ivory black to the highlight area of the scarf.
19. Portray the details of the characters.
20. Finish polishing rings and other small items. Finish the whole painting in one pass. The painting takes about six hours.